Prevalence and Associated Factors to Severe Forms of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients Received at the Angiography Unit of the Central Hospital of Yaounde
Keywords:Characteristics, Epidemiology, Diabetic retinopathy, Yaoundé Central Hospital
Purpose: The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with severe forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients received at the angiography unit of the Yaounde Central Hospital (YCH). Problem: Ocular complications have a particular place because of the social impact and the major handicap they cause. Diabetes in Cameroon affects 615,000 people, i.e. an overall prevalence of 6%, and it represents an important cause of blindness. Among the complications related to diabetes, diabetic retinopathy accounts for 2.6% of blindness in the world. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 476 diabetic patients over a three-year period from 2018 to 2020 at the ophthalmology unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital. We retained complete diabetic patient records for the main data collected. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with Epi Info version 126.96.36.199 and Excel 2013 analysis software, with data compared using chi 2 with a threshold of p < 0.05 significant level. Results: The prevalence of DR at the angiography unit was estimated at 75.16%, of which 68.05% was type 2 and 7.10% was type 1. There was a statistically significant association between the duration of diabetes and the presence of DR (p=0.000). The angiographic diagnosis of DR in 359 (75.42%) patients corresponding to 711 (74.84%) eyes, and diabetic macular edema in 196 (41.09%) patients corresponding to 387 (40.73%) eyes. Severe forms of diabetic retinopathy were present in 35.72% of the patients with DR, i.e. in 230 (32.35%) eyes. The risk factors for DR were glycemic control, duration of diabetes and hypertension. Conclusion: Hence the importance of insisting on preventive measures and education of the diabetic patient, within the framework of a global and multidisciplinary management strategy, in order to prevent the untoward complications of ocular damage.
R. Simó et al., “Non-Traditional Systemic Treatments for Diabetic Retinopathy: An?Evidence-Based Review,” Curr. Med. Chem., vol. 22, no. 21, pp. 2580–2589, Jun. 2015, doi: 10.2174/0929867322666150520095923.
J. G. Lawrenson et al., “Interventions to increase attendance for diabetic retinopathy screening,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., vol. 1, p. CD012054, Jan. 2018, doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012054.pub2.
S. Sivaprasad and E. Pearce, “The unmet need for better risk stratification of non?proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Diabet. Med., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 424–433, Apr. 2019, doi: 10.1111/dme.13868.
E. Masson, “Rétinopathie diabétique à Dakar et revue de la littérature africaine,” EM-Consulte. https://www.em-consulte.com/article/79898/retinopathie-diabetique-a-dakar-et-revue-de-la-lit (accessed Sep. 02, 2022).
P. I. Burgess, G. Msukwa, and N. A. Beare, “Diabetic retinopathy in sub-Saharan Africa: meeting the challenges of an emerging epidemic,” BMC Med., vol. 11, no. 1, p. 157, Jul. 2013, doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-157.
B. A. Nkoum, Initiation à la recherche: une nécessité professionnelle (Presse UCAC). 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.worldcat.org/title/initiation-a-la-recherche-une-necessite-professionnelle/oclc/880579077
G. Koki et al., “Diabetic retinopathy in black Africans: An angiographic study,” Santé Montrouge Fr., vol. 20, pp. 127–32, Jul. 2010, doi: 10.1684/san.2010.0207.
P. I. Burgess, I. J. C. MacCormick, S. P. Harding, A. Bastawrous, N. A. V. Beare, and P. Garner, “Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in Africa: a systematic review,” Diabet. Med., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 399–412, Apr. 2013, doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03756.x.
S. B. Gning, M. Thiam, F. Fall, K. Ba-Fall, P. S. Mbaye, and L. Fourcade, “LE DIABÈTE SUCRÉ EN AFRIQUE SUBSAHARIENNE ASPECTS ÉPIDÉMIOLOGIQUES, DIFFICULTÉS DE PRISE EN CHARGE,” p. 5, 2007.
J. J. Bigna, J. R. Nansseu, J.-C. Katte, and J. J. Noubiap, “Prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes mellitus among adults residing in Cameroon: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., vol. 137, pp. 109–118, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.12.005.
C. Nanfack, G. Koki, L. Mbuagbaw, and B. L. Assumpta, “Diabetic retinopathy at the Yaoundé Central Hospital in Cameroon: epidemiology and angiographic findings,” Nov. 16, 2012. https://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/13/54/full/ (accessed Sep. 05, 2022).
UKPDS, “Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33),” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9131, pp. 837–853, Sep. 1998, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)07019-6.
E. Ngassam et al., “P318 Cout de la prise en charge du diabète de type 2 a l’hopital central de yaounde,” Diabetes Metab., vol. 38, p. A105, Mar. 2012, doi: 10.1016/S1262-3636(12)71420-9.
R. Jin, Y. Guo, and Y. Chen, “Risk factors associated with emergency peripartum hysterectomy.,” Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 900–904, 2014.
L. Osterberg and T. Blaschke, “Adherence to Medication,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 353, no. 5, pp. 487–497, Aug. 2005, doi: 10.1056/NEJMra050100.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.