Administrator’s Supervisory Role and Perceived Internal Peace in Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria
Keywords:School administrators, supervisor, peace
This study investigated the “Administrators’ Supervisory Role and Perceived Internal Peace of Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study adopted one purpose, one research question and one null hypothesis. The population of the study was 5,277 teachers in 246 public secondary schools in Cross River State obtained from the Ministry of Education, Calabar for the 2020/21 academic session. The Sample size of the study was 316 female teachers and 213 male teachers making a total of 529 elements selected using Taro Yamane’s method. A structured questionnaires titled “Administrator’s Supervisory Role and Perceived Internal Peace of Public Secondary Schools Questionnaire (ASRPIPPSSQ)” with 10 items was used to gather data. Using four likert format rating scale. The statistical tools used in the analysis were mean and standard deviation while Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Finding from this study revealed that administrators’ supervisory role significantly influence internal peace of public secondary schools in the study area, which implies that, internal peace in public secondary schools is ensured by the ability of administrators to exercise good supervisory role. Supervision of students, teachers and other non-human resources is therefore germane to sustenance of internal peace in public secondary schools in Cross River State and beyond. Therefore, it was recommended, among other things, that School administrators should ensure that staff and students are adequately coordinated while school records are supervised regularly with erring staff and students reprimanded.
. A. Olatoun. “Resource utilization and internal efficiency in Nigerian secondary schools: Implications for socio problems of education”. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 23-30, 2012.
. A. Olugboye. Introduction to Educational Administration, Planning and Supervision. Ikeja: Joja Educational Research and Publishers Ltd, 2014.
. M. L. Clemen. “Classroom supervisory practices and their relationship to teacher effectiveness as perceived by secondary teachers”. SMCC Higher Education Research Journal, 3(2), pp. 244- 246, 2016. ·Available: http://orcid.org/[Sept. 2, 2022].
. U. Akubue. Classroom organization and management: A 5 point strategy. Ibadan: Wisdom Publishers Ltd, 1991.
. A. Watkins. Student supervision. London: Macmillan, 2004.
. A. Jacob and L. Lefgren. “Can principals identify effective teachers? Evidence on subjective performance evaluation in education”. Journal of Labor Economics, vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 101-136, 2010.
. K. Oyewole and G. B. Ehinola. “Relevance of instructional supervision in the achievement of effective learning in Nigerian secondary schools”. Journal of Commerce & Management Perspective Global Institute for Research and Education, vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 1-8, 2014.
. L. Edo and A. A. David. “Influence of school supervision strategies on teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools in Rivers State”. International Journal of Innovative Development and Policy Studies, vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 45-54, 2019.
. Loganbill, E. Hardy and U. Delworth. “Supervision: A conceptual model”. The Counselling Psychologist, vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 3-42, 2002.
. C. U. Abana. “Administrators’ financial accountability and perceived internal efficiency of public secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria”. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Analysis, Vol. 05 No. 03, pp. 673-681, 2022.
. O. Olorunfemi. “Challenges of instructional supervision in the new millennium: Implication for effective planning”. Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 68- 80, 2018.
. E. Gordon. “The tutoring revolution: Applying research for best practices, policy implications, and student achievement”, 2006.
. N. Ogba and N. C. N. Igu. “Realizing quality education in Nigeria: The need to revitalize secondary education”. Journal of Educational Research, vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 57-64, 2014.
. Federal Ministry of Education. National Policy on Education. Lagos: NERDC press, 2004.
. Federal Republic of Nigeria. National Policy on Education. Lagos. Federal Government Press, 2013.
. T. Ekundayo, D. O. Oyerinde and A. O. Kolawole. “Effective supervision of instruction in Nigerian secondary schools”. Journal of Education and Practice, vol. 4, No. 8, pp. 212-220, 2013.
. Harris K & Sass, J. (2007). The learning educator: A new era for professional learning. Oxford, OH: National staff development council.
. Y. Kotirde, I. K. Uguda and J. B. M. Yunos. “The processes of supervisions in secondary schools educational”. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 204, No. 6, pp. 259 – 264, 2014.
. A. Adeolu. “Assessment of principals’ supervisory roles for quality assurance in secondary school in Ondo State, Nigeria”. World Journal of Education, vol. 2, No. 1, 2012.
. J. Blasé and J. Blasé. “Effective instructional leadership: Teachers perspective on how principals promote teaching and learning in schools”. Journal of Education Administration, vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 130 - 141, 2010.
. J. W. Walker. Supervision of instruction and school management. Boston: Houghton Mifflinco, 2016.
. B. Ojo and D. A. Olaniyan. “Effective time management in organization panacea or placebe”. European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 127-133, 2008.
. O. Adetula. “Improving the supervisory skills and competences of inspectors of mathematics education in school”. International Journal of the Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria, vol. 1, No. 1,pp. 33-40, 2005.
. N. Mecgley. A handbook for effective supervision. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Eaglewood Cliffs. Mod, 2015.
. M. N. Modebelu. “Supervisory behaviour and teacher satisfaction in secondary schools”. Nigerian Journal of Educational Management, vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 1-12, 2008.
. B. Oyedeji. “Supervision and standard of education in Nigerian secondary schools”. 2012. Available: [September 18, 20180.
. N. I. D. Waziri. Education for All? Complex solutions to complex problems in Nigerian educational sector. Ph.D thesis. Cambridge University, 2018.
. A. Olorode and A. O. Adeyemo. “Educational supervision: Concepts and practice with reference to Oyo State, Nigeria”, 2012.
. O. Mobolaji. Supervision of Instruction in Education. National Open University of Nigeria: Lagos. The Regent, 2006.
. O. Segun. Educational supervision: Perspective and practice in Nigeria. Ile Ife: University of Ile Ife, 2004.
. E. Eya and C.C. Leonard.“Effective supervision of instruction in Nigerian secondary schools: Issues in quality assurance”. Journal of Qualitative Education, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 1-12, 2012.
. R. Murphy. Testing teacher work best for teacher evaluation and appraisal. vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 1-29, 2013.
. N. Ogbo. “Effects of modified clinical supervision approach on teacher instructional performance in Ebonyi state”. Journal of Educational Leadership, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 54-59, 2015.
. O. Isah (2019). Importance of Lesson Plans and Notes. Available: www.nnu.edu/education/node.[27th November, 2014].
. A. Okobia. “Approaches to supervision of instruction, education and development”. Journal of the Nigerian Educational Research Council, vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 292-299, 2015.
. T. O. Ogunsaju. “Human capital management for effective corporate governance”, Paper presented at a Workshop titled: Corporate Governance for Sustainable National Development, April, 2006.
. T. Toch and R. Rothman. Rush to judgment: Teachers evaluation in public education. Washington, DC: Education sector, 2008.
. N. Nwogbo and B. C. Okeke. “Teachers’ discipline and commitment to duty: A veritable instrument for academic excellence”. Journal of Educational Leadership, vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 6-21, 2010.
. N. Ofejebe, E. T. C. Chukwuma and E. C. Onyekwe. “Role of internal supervision on teaching/learning effectiveness in the management of public secondary education in Anambra State”. UNIZK Journal of Educational Management and Policy, vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 206-222, 2016.
. M. N. G. Akeke and F. U. Mbon. “Assessing the Supervisory Roles of Principals and Goal Attainment of Secondary Schools in Cross River State”. Department of Vocational Education, University of Calabar, 2015.
. A. De Grauwe. “Improving quality through school-based management: Learning from
international experiences”. International Review of Education, vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 269–287, 2005.
. Institute for Educational Leadership. Leadership for Student Learning: Reinventing the principalship. Washington, D. C. p.30, 2000. Available: http://www.iel.org/ (Sept. 6, 2022).
. V. N. Ogakwu. “A Comparative analysis of supervisory control measures in Public and Private secondary schools in Enugu State”. Knowledge Review, vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 25-32, 2010.
. R. A. Adeboyeje. “A practical approach to effective utilization and maintenance of physical facilities in secondary schools”. In Fadipe, J. O. and Oluchukwu E.E. (Eds) Educational Planning and Administration in Nigeria in the 21st century. Ondo: NIEPA. Pp. 88-103, 2000.
. T. R. Frankie-Dolor. “Evaluating resources for business education programme”. In E. A Aromolaran (Ed). Book of reading in business education. vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 126-133, Nigeria, 2002.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.