Gut-Brain Axis Association to the Brain Function
Keywords:Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), gut-brain axis (GBA), short chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
Nowadays, a growing amount of evidence has indicated the correlation between a variety of neurological illnesses and the gut microbiome. The gut microbiome plays an important role in the gut-brain axis (GBA), the bidirectional crosstalk between the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and the central nervous system. The objective of this review is to summarize the factors related to the GBA and the CNS functions as well as the processes behind the relationship. The interaction between the CNS, the enteric nervous system (ENS), and many other systems, links the emotional and cognitive functions of the CNS to the GI functions. The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) contributes most to the stress by modulating the adaptive responses. Although most evidence supporting the roles of gut microbiome are from experiments conducted in animals, there is clinical evidence showing the improvement in the condition of some neurological disorder patients when prescribed antibiotics. Psychological stressors of varying durations can influence the components and total biomass of the gut microbiota via host-gut microbiota signaling. Chemical signalling is one of the mechanisms behind GBA. One of which being the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), made by the fermentation process of the gut bacteria, can affect the host's illness and behaviour. Moreover, Neuronal pathways connect the gut and the brain physically through the vagus nerve. The gut microbiota also plays a critical role in the formation and expression of the peripheral immune system and the growth of the brain's intrinsic immune system. Immune cells and their inflammatory molecules have been linked to both migraine attack and the stomach's visceral pain. Thereby, the impact of CNS on microbiota composition and function is controlled by the disruption of the normal luminal/mucosal environment.
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